Drugs Medicines & Supplements
Several different modalities are utilized in the treatment and manageent of cancer. The major approaches include chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery, all of which are beneficial to varying degrees in different types and stages of cancer. However, these treatments also have a host of adverse effects which every cancer patient should be aware about. Nevertheless, it should not detract a person with cancer from seeking medical assistance and following the advice of the oncologist.
What is cancer chemotherapy?
Chemotherapy is the use of drugs to destroy cancer cells. It is the major tool for medical management of cancer (malignant tumors) and is not used for benign tumors. These chemicals are often highly toxic to cells, and therefore also known cytotoxic drugs. Chemotherapy is usually a systemic approach meaning that it can affect the entire body while other cancer treatments like surgery or radiation therapy are a local approach.
Diabetes mellitus is a disease with high blood glucose levels resulting from a deficiency of insulin. Drugs that are used in treatment of diabetes mellitus are called antidiabetic drugs. It is useful for reducing blood sugar levels. Insulin, its analogues and oral hypoglycemic drugs are the commonly used antidiabetic drugs.
Antiretroviral drugs are medication that are active against retroviruses. These days it is employed as a cocktail of drugs (HAART) in the treatment of HIV infection. Antiretrovirals are a sub-class of antiviral drugs.
How do antiretroviral drugs work?
The traditional antiretroviral drugs inhibit reverse transcriptase enzyme or protease enzyme. The reverse transcriptase enzyme is responsible for synthesis of DNA from the viral RNA and the protease enzyme is responsible for breaking down larger proteins to smaller functional proteins. Some drugs act by preventing the entry of the virus into human cell and some by preventing integration of viral DNA into the human DNA.
Antiviral drugs (antivirals) are medicines that are used to treat or prevent the infections caused by virus. Antivirals act specifically against particular groups of viruses and its actions are limited to these groups alone. A virus has no cell membrane and can multiply when it infects a cell’s nucleus in the human (host) body. The virus invades the host cells and multiplies rapidly thereby resulting in the particular infection.
What are proton pump inhibitors?
Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are the most effective group of drugs that inhibit gastric acid secretion in the stomach. The PPIs are the best suppressors of acid production and is one of the most widely sold drugs worldwide on account of its outstanding efficacy and safety. It may reduce as much as 90-98% of 24-hour acid secretion with standard doses.