Cholera is a bacterial disease where the intestinal infection leads to profuse watery diarrhea. The cholera bacteria is spread by consuming contaminated food or water. Although diarrhea is not an uncommon symptom, cholera diarrhea is so severe that it can cause severe dehydration within a very short while. The degree of dehydration leads to complications and ultimately death if appropriate medical intervention is not forthcoming. There are vaccines for cholera prevention but it only offers immunity for short periods. Therefore vaccination is only considered when there is a risk of outbreaks.
Stomach pain is a common occurrence in every person’s life but it is important to differentiate what is meant by this term. It is not uncommon for most people to refer to abdominal pain in general as stomach pain. However, the stomach is a specific part of the gastrointestinal tract, a hollow muscular organ that lies between the esophagus (food pipe) and small intestine (small bowel). Therefore stomach pain in the true sense refers to pain in the stomach organ. In order to understand the location of the pain it is important to first identify the location of the stomach.
Appendix pain is any extreme discomfort or tenderness associated with some disease of the appendix, the small outpouching from the cenum of the large intestine. Anatomically, it is more correctly known as the cecal appendix or vermiform appendix. Tenderness or pain associated with the appendix is a symptom due to a disease. It is difficult for any person to conclusively in a specific region of the abdomen as being appendix pain. Other symptoms accompanying the pain must be noted and diagnostic investigations need to be conducted in order to confirm that the pain is really originating from the appendix. Remember that the abdomen is packed with various organs and tissues, all of which lie closely to each other.
There connection between stress and stomach problems is well known. We have all experienced it at some time or the other. It can vary from a little indigestion, to a dull ache or even chronic stomach problems when we are stressed. However, there is sometimes confusion about whether stress causes these stomach problems or not. In fact, there is even more confusion about what stress means in the context of related esophagus (gullet), stomach and intestinal problems. With regards to gastritis, the term stress gastritis is probably the most misunderstood type of stomach problem by the average person. Are we talking about stresses in life that is associated with financial worry and relationship disruptions? Or are we talking about the strain on the body as a result of major illness?
Gastritis is inflammation of the stomach lining irrespective of the cause. It can be caused by a number of factors, the most common of which are long-term use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and infection with the bacteria Helicobacter pylori. Some people have no symptoms of gastritis (asymptomatic), while others may complain of dyspepsia (indigestion) and a gnawing stomach pain. However, it should be kept in mind that not all patients who complain of such symptoms are suffering from gastritis.
What are proton pump inhibitors?
Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are the most effective group of drugs that inhibit gastric acid secretion in the stomach. The PPIs are the best suppressors of acid production and is one of the most widely sold drugs worldwide on account of its outstanding efficacy and safety. It may reduce as much as 90-98% of 24-hour acid secretion with standard doses.